For example, in the year 2002, the Israel Knesset (the unicameral national legislature of Israel) approved the Integration Law (see [70]). The concept of inclusive education has come to mean many things: from the very specific – for example, the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream schools – to a very broad notion of social inclusion as used by governments and the international community as a way of responding to diversity among learners (Ainscow, 2007). School assessment typically includes both quantitative and norm-referenced data, which are not helpful in the case of inclusive education, where individualized motor patterns of the students with disabilities are not expected to conform to the quality criteria expected in the normative population. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Moreover, according to Loreman and Deppeler [19], it is not enough to accept children with disabilities in a general class; they are expected to be welcomed and wanted by their peers and the staff, including the teachers and administrators. *Address all correspondence to: lidor@wincol.ac.il. Conversely, teachers who support and believe in the concept of inclusion can provide special education students with confidence and a comfortable learning environment. Inclusion is crucial because it ensures equality and non-discrimination on the basis of disability and allows students to receive a “free, appropriate public education.” With this support of international governing bodies, and the formation of a theoretical knowledge base (e.g., [12, 13, 14]) and practical guidelines (e.g., [15, 16]), the trend toward inclusive education has increasingly been advocated by educators and scholars worldwide (e.g., [17]). Inclusive Physical Education requires educators to believe in the concept that success for each student can be different. The main purpose of these meetings was to listen to the “story” of the students with disabilities, in order to understand how they actually felt in the PE TPP. endstream endobj 77 0 obj<> endobj 78 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 79 0 obj<> endobj 80 0 obj<> endobj 81 0 obj[/Separation/Black 82 0 R 104 0 R] endobj 82 0 obj[/ICCBased 103 0 R] endobj 83 0 obj<> endobj 84 0 obj<> endobj 85 0 obj<> endobj 86 0 obj<> endobj 87 0 obj<> endobj 88 0 obj<>stream Background: Inclusive education definitions, concepts and measures from two broad categories: measure areas associated with access, support, policy, curriculum, pedagogy, Definitions of inclusion Inclusive education is a contentious term that lacks a tight conceptual focus, which may Inclusive education is a phrase used to describe the joint education of special needs and typically developing children. The knowledge base for including children with disabilities in adapted PE, where children with disabilities are educated within regular or separate classes utilizing adapted frameworks of curriculum development and teachers’ practice, has evolved since the 1950s, mostly in the United States [9]. This approach (a) considers goal-setting with regard to the three domains of the World Health Organization’s [47] International Classification of Function and Disability, (1) functioning (having the capacity to perform movement tasks), (2) activity performance, and (3) participation (in the activity tasks); (b) analyzes expected performance criteria for the typical student; (c) estimates the differences observed in the included student’s performance and the potential reasons for the observed gaps, which may be considered as both personal and environmental barriers; and (d) proposes adaptations of the task performance patterns, environmental conditions, equipment used, rules of the activity, and/or instruction modalities. The main disadvantage of “integration” was that the physical placement was not accompanied by organizational support within the general schools or by significant changes in its content and teaching practices. Loreman’s seven pillars [30] are an example of how successful inclusion should be implemented. 0000013700 00000 n We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. 0000010480 00000 n Benefits of Inclusive Education. Implementing Inclusive Education: Issues in Bridging the Policy-Practice Gap, Volume 8. Q.2 Explain the concept of Inclusion. For general educators with a limited special education background, this can often be anxiety provoking and stressful. A number of steps were taken by the committee: (1) reviewing the medical report provided by a physician about the mental/physical condition of the applicant; (2) meeting with the applicant to discuss the potential challenges he or she would probably have to face in the PE TPP, as well as to listen to the applicants’ own requests about being part of a PE TPP, in order to assist him or her in effectively coping with the TPP’s challenges; and (3) reaching a decision concerning the discussed applicant. Indeed, they were trained in their PE TPP to work with children with disabilities. Therefore, teachers are challenged with the task of developing individualized baseline-referenced tools which can be utilized for students with and without disabilities, as well as for teachers. Based on the experience gained among teachers and scholars, theoretical and practical recommendations have been developed and practiced in many schools across the United States and Canada, leading to the establishment of the International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (IFAPA) in the mid-1970s [10, 11] and the research journal Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) in the mid-1980s. Explain the aim and objectives of adaptive Physical Education. 0000000956 00000 n However, following the time they spent with the students with disabilities, they also felt ready to work with adults with disabilities. Read the story. Recruiting students: a number of students were recruited to help the students with disabilities. 0000019811 00000 n Students with disabilities experience restricted participation in extracurricular activities (King et al., 2009) and are six times less likely to report elevated self-efficacy in Physical Education (PE specific self-efficacy) compared to students with high grades in school-based Physical Education (PE) (Bertills et al., 2018b). 0000008052 00000 n Principle Four: Engaging with all your critical stakeholders. The Systematic Ecological Modification Approach (SEMA; [34]) is a task-analytical teacher’s reflection tool, providing guidance throughout the journey of inclusive practice. The authors present information on the role of assessment, placement and specific activity modifications to accommodate all learners in a variety of settings (inclusive, self-contained and modified). By placing greater weight on the pedagogical studies, students can become teachers who know “how to teach” but may be lacking in fundamental disciplinary knowledge, namely, “what to teach.” They will probably develop an arsenal of pedagogical devices/tools that they can use when teaching in schools but may lack a deep understanding of the scientific foundations of the selected discipline/s. Students were encouraged to share their feelings and perspectives about the policy. The chapter is composed of four sections. In order to follow the principles of the leading frameworks of inclusion (e.g., [28, 30]), as well as to effectively deal with the pedagogical challenge of inclusion, a number of actions were taken: In accordance with national legislation [70] and the International Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities [6], as well as following a number of applications submitted to the college, the board of the college has committed to accepting and enabling students with disabilities to participate in the PE TPP. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? In a number of disciplines (e.g., the arts, dance, PE), the teaching certification authorizes the students to teach in high schools as well. In addition, in a number of classes a co-teaching model can be used. Inclusive education is the most effective way to give all children a fair chance to go to school, learn and develop the skills they need to thrive. Inclusive education is a relatively controversial topic for many parents and educators. Sport instructional aids (e.g., balls of different sizes) were used in these classes in order to help the students with the disabilities to successfully practice the motor tasks. In a successful Inclusive Physical Education program, all students are fully engaged in instructional activities, sharing equally and learning together. However, there is also one potential limitation in the concept of linking the disciplinary studies to the pedagogical studies. ���_?����G The Academic College at Wingate, Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel. Foundations of Inclusive Education Research, volume 6. In this chapter, we address the inclusion challenge, namely how we have taken up the challenge to modify one existing teacher preparation program (TPP) in physical education (PE) to enable students with disabilities to study at the same level as the other students who are enrolled in the program. The benefits of inclusive education are numerous for both students with and without disabilities. 108 0 obj<>stream A Practice . According to the Integration Law, a special committee for inclusion should be created in each academic/educational institution, in order to (a) profile the special needs of these students and (b) assist the faculty members who work at the institution in making the required modifications in the program, based on the profiles of the students with disabilities. 0000003858 00000 n Ronnie Lidor and Yeshayahu Hutzler (March 19th 2019). In the following the concepts of inclusion in general education as well as in physical education are elaborated – referring to many quotes because of actual discussion which SPORTS SCIENCE AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION – Vol. Typically, mentors could be experienced teachers with hands-on experience, who can answer questions, suggest alternatives, and evaluate choices together with the mentee and support his or her reflexive process. By utilizing the ABC model, physical educators can assess and modify the curriculum to meet the needs of all stu- 76 33 In other words, did all the changes/modifications made in the TPP contribute to helping the students with disabilities achieve their goals? The term “special education” was replaced by the term “special needs,” but another gap had yet to be bridged—that is, of the philosophical change from welfare to human rights-centered services [4]. Modifications made in the classrooms in which lectures are given: two main modifications were made: (1) physical modifications—most of the classrooms/lecture halls in the college were modified and equipped according to the special needs of the students, so that they could have easy access to the classroom/hall and sit comfortably during the lectures. Therefore, another source for mentors is warranted—this could be individuals with a disability who provide their life experiences from an expert position—and therefore in addition to coping with a lack of knowledge, they also support reframing attitudes [58]. Our aim in these discussions was also to develop an understanding of how to enable the inclusion of physical educators with disabilities into the schools. degree and receive teaching certification, which enables them to teach in elementary schools in Israel. Bringing the inclusion policy to the forefront: in a number of meetings with other faculty members, the senior faculty members (e.g., heads of schools/departments at the college) explained the policy of the college to “open the gates” for students with disabilities. Related terms with a longer history include mainstreaming, integration, normalization, least restrictive environment, deinstitutionalization, and regular education initiative. For example, the students with disabilities are required, as are all the students in the TPP, to teach instructional units in schools during the second and third years of the program. Introduction: The use of appropriate teaching styles makes an important contribution to children’s learning in physical education. This informative webinar helps participants understand the concept of Universal Design for Learning and how using this system will allow all children to be included in physical education lessons. A Practice . and (b) What actions should be taken with the students at large who are required to be part of a learning group that is composed of students with different needs? The close connection between the disciplinary studies and the pedagogical studies at the colleges of education has a number of advantages but also one major limitation. 0000007137 00000 n Utilizing such a systematic reflective tool has been found to reduce the likelihood of the biased intuitive decision-making often utilized by teachers and administrators to reduce complexity during the inclusion practice [48]. These applications were sent by individuals with various disabilities, among them one blind student, one student with a speech disorder, one student with a physical disability (losing one leg in a terror attack), two students who had suffered a mild stroke, and one student with stunted growth. The following are two advantages for the imposed link between disciplinary and pedagogical studies: By taking classes in their selected discipline/s and classes in pedagogy across the 4-year program, the students are provided with a unique opportunity to integrate the different types of knowledge emerging from the various classes. In our college, The Academic College at Wingate, a number of students with disabilities have been accepted to the TPP, among them students with various physical disabilities. INTRODUCTION Making modifications in the PE TPP: in order to address the special needs of the students with disabilities, two main modifications were made: (1) modifications in the classrooms/lecture halls and (2) modifications in the activity classes. 0000022481 00000 n It was decided to assign a specific committee to advance the application of this law: The recruitment process: a careful recruitment process was conducted by an assigned committee composed of the following staff members: two experts in adapted physical activity, two experts in sport activities (one in individual sport and one in team sport), and one expert in sport pedagogy. x�b```b``9���� ���π �@16�2�V@�2�X#�ƻ?a@G%)8�vI\��ܝ��Y$����CH�3uX�c��E|e�d#P*���C�sd6�[����O�N� ��:���khZGHLI ""l����5�a}Z��@����t -�&`%�|l��>�dP<0�a�ß�79L�>�7̔Y!�8������ܭ�EW,���a9S���B�K']4�f��(.X}��� ��o��LL�, However, in most countries the number of such professionals is very limited. 0000016799 00000 n No specific frameworks for promoting inclusive education within the PE domain have been proposed, but the general principles for teachers’ empowerment proposed by the European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education [26], and based on a multinational European Union’s Teacher Education for Inclusion (TE4I) project, provide good starting points. Guide for Ensuring Inclusion and Equity in Education provides perhaps the clearest conceptualisation of how inclusive education can be deemed successful: Table 1: Key dimensions for establishing inclusive and equitable education systems S 1.2 1.1 Inclusion and equity are overarching principles that guide all education policies, plans, The increasing number of students with disabilities who have the goal of becoming a teacher in either elementary or high school is one of the challenges we are currently facing at the academic colleges of education in Israel. Volunteer students (see the next point in this part—Point g) sat next to the student with disability and provided him or her with assistance, if required; (2) instructional modifications—the lecturers of the classes that the students with disabilities attended were aware of the specific impairments of each of the students and met with them a number of times during the semester at special one-on-one sessions. 0000003678 00000 n A simple explanation of the view is that the teacher is the final authority and source of knowledge.The problem for many teachers is transition of teaching in manner than accommodate the use of technology. The use of the abovementioned designs can assist researchers in collecting data on various aspects of PE TPPs in which students with disabilities study with regular students. Inclusion has set a philosophical argument that any children with mental, physical, or emotional handicaps are entitled to access to education within the mainstream of public education. In another study [62], one TPP that prepared both single- and dual-certification master’s students to teach in inclusive classrooms was reviewed. The preparation of the extra drills was time-consuming, but this procedure was necessary in order to allow the students with the disabilities to effectively practice the learned motor skills. Parents of children with disability, athletes representing sport clubs for individuals with disabilities, and additional community stakeholders may contribute to children’s understanding of and attitudes toward inclusion. In order to achieve the goal of producing good teachers, it appears that the main objective of the great majority of classes taught in TPPs offered by the academic colleges of education is to increase the pedagogical knowledge of the student rather than the knowledge of the specific discipline/s. Rationale for Inclusive Physical Activity. In most of these meetings the student volunteers attended as well, so that they would be informed and could continue working with these students on the relevant learning material. More recently, the UNESCO published a statement acknowledging that inclusive, adapted, and safe opportunities to participate in PE must be provided to children with disabilities [8]. The case of a high school wheelchair athlete, McFadden versus the Howard County (Maryland) Public School System, is an example of a struggle for a human rights supportive policy led by a student with a disability and her mother, requesting that she be entitled to compete against athletes without a disability on the same track and at the same time. The Paralympic School Day activity or Special Olympics School demonstrations are good examples of such community involvement and were found to have a positive impact on attitudes (see [44, 45]). Different teaching styles affect many aspects of teaching and learning, including the learning environment and the teacher’s ability to meet individual needs. The chapter is composed of four sections. Every inclusion process should be carefully evaluated to determine whether its educational objectives are being achieved. This is a principle of inclusive … Therefore, the discussions focused mainly on the importance of having students with disabilities in the college but also were centered on how to handle potential reactions—not only among lecturers, particularly those who teach physical activity classes, but also among students. 0000010109 00000 n Two experts in the area of adapted physical activity who work at the college planned a number of meetings where major issues associated with inclusion were discussed. Should we allow them to teach only with the assistance of a fellow student? The specific practice of opening supportive and adaptive practices for all has been acknowledged as the universal design-for-learning approach [40], which has been developed as an adaptation of the universal design approach in architecture [41], and has been recommended for inclusive PE [42]. The second layer tests the interpretation of and inferences from the concept, fact or topic, concept, structure, etc to real life situation.In the third layer, you may be required to construct, consolidate, design, or produce your own structure, concept, fact, scenario or issue.iii. TPPs in PE were established in the mid-1940s as a 1-year program and gradually developed into a 4-year preparation program. Lecturers in the two types of studies—disciplinary and pedagogical—can together plan some of their classes and provide the students with examples of how information from one class (e.g., a disciplinary class) can be related to elements of information discussed in another class (e.g., a pedagogy class). KEYWORDS: Self-concept, self-esteem, disability, inclusion, physical education Received for Publication: 13/09/12 Accepted for Publication: 21/01/13 Corresponding Author: my1971323@hotmail.com INTRODUCTION The study of self-concept is one of the most significant issues in the human sciences generally and educational studies in particular. Inclusion is embedded in all aspects of school life, and is supported by culture, policies and every day practices. Development of personal principles 5. Although the activities may be modified or adapted, students with disabilities learn the same concepts, skills, and content as all other students in the class. These students volunteered to assist the students with disabilities; however the college covered their transportation expenses since we did not want their availability to be limited. Upon completing the 4-year programs offered by the academic colleges of education, the students earn a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. The length of the TPP at the academic colleges of education is 4 years, and the integration between the discipline/s and the pedagogical/teaching studies already begins in the first year of the program in most of the colleges or in the second year of the program in others. Tailors teaching for all learners. In adhering to these specifications, the CRPD is very clear about ensuring participation in both inclusive and separate types of physical activities across the life span, with a particular emphasis on schoolchildren. 4. The Concept of Inclusive Education and Understanding Children with Special Needs. Should we let them teach only a small portion of the class? That is to say, a dual system of TPPs exists in the country. The idea behind inclusive education is that students with special needs will be placed in the same classroom environment as other students their age who do not have special needs. Therefore, the teacher’s reflections should consider such individualized activity and participation modification options. The TREE model is a practical tool designed to support teachers and coaches to adapt and modify an activity to be more inclusive of students with a range of abilities. From these discussions there emerged a new concept of integration called inclusive education or inclusive schools. This declaration fundamentally seeks to deal with the issue of discrimination at all levels in every facet of society. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. As expected, there were a variety of reactions among both the lecturers and the students, for example, “Is it possible to plan a physical activity class composed of ‘regular’ and disabled students?”; “How can a blind student play basketball?”; and “How can a physically disabled student teach volleyball to a class of 12-year-olds composed only of ‘regular’ children?”. No personal information about the students with disabilities was provided. Conducting workshops with lecturers and instructors: in order to cope with the abovementioned questions, a number of clinics were conducted. I - Adapted Physical Activity And Inclusive Physical Education - Maria Dinold Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Neighbourhood schools are the heart of our communities, and Inclusion BC believes they are essential for a quality inclusive education system. They also presented a number of issues that they wanted to discuss with the members of the committee, such as how to enable the students with disabilities to be more independent in their studies. This is common also in the case of PE [50], and therefore pre-service or in-service training is necessary. Activity who were staff members at the College at all levels in every facet society. The committee that was responsible for the recruitment process to inclusive physical education.... In and out of class and inclusion BC believes they are essential a! Potential difficulties an analysis of the members of the Sustainable Development goals section, we demonstrated a approach. Goal of inclusion is embedded in all aspects of school life, and socially generated disadvantages ( UNICEF, )! Varies across contexts and participant groups intellectual, social emotional, linguistic or other.... 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